Adequan I.A., 6 Vials (1 ml each)
Adequan I.A. - Luitpold Pharmaceuticals is recommended for the treatment of non-infectious degenerative and/or traumatic joint dysfunction and associated lameness of the carpal joint horses.
Each milliliter of Adequan contains 250 mg of Polysulfated Glycosaminoglycan
and water for Injection q.s. Sodium Hydroxide and/or Hydrochloric Acid added
when necessary to adjust pH.
Polysulfated Glycosaminoglycan is chemically similar to mycopolysaccharides
of cartilaginous tissue. It is a potent proteolytic enqyme inhibitor and
diminishes or reverses the processes which result in the loss of cartilaginous
mucopolysaccharides. PSGAG improves joint function by stimulating synovial
membrane activity, reducing synovial protein levels and increasing synovial
fluid viscosity in traumatized equine carpal joints.
Toxicity studies were conducted in horses. Doses as high as 1,250 mg were
administered intracarpally to 6 horses once a week for 18 weeks. This dosage is
5 times the recommended dosage and 3.6 times the recommended therapeutic
regimen. Clinical observations revealed soreness and swelling in 1.8% (2 of 109
animals) at the injection site which was mild, self limiting and lasted less
than one day. There was a dose related evaluation on partial thromboplastin
time, creatinine and glucose. No animal had any clinical illness during the
trial and none showed clinical evidence of toxicity except transient swelling at
the injection site, possibly due to mechanical invasion of the joint.
Do not use in horses showing hypersensitivity to Polysulfated
Glycosaminoglycan. Do not administer Adequan in the face of joint sepsis.
Not for use in horses intended for food.
Dosage and Administration:
The recommended dose of Adequan in horses is 230mg (1 vial) once a week for
five weeks, intra-articularly. The joint area must be shave, cleansed and
sterilized as in a surgical procedure prior to injection. Do not mix Adequan
with other drugs or solvents.
Two major categories of adverse reactions have been reported following the
intra-articular administration of Adequan:
1. Inflammatory joint reactions consisting of joint pain, effusion, and swelling
with associated lameness.
2. Septic arthritis.
Less frequently, nonseptic arthritis, hemathrosis, and cellulitis at the
injection site and surrounding tissues have been reported.
Adequan is indicated for use only in the carpal joint of horses. Do not mix
Adequan with other drugs or solvents.
Reaction in the joint may occasionally occur within 48 hours after intra-articular
treatment. If the reaction involves excessive inflammation, cease therapy with
Post-injection inflammation may result from possible sensitivity to Adequan;
traumatic injection technique; exceeding the recommended dose, frequency of
administration or number of Adequan injections' and from combining Adequan with
other drugs. Excessive joint inflammation may be manifested by rapid
onset, tenderness, swelling and warmth over the injection carpus. Inflammatory
joint reactions may successfully be treated by systemic anti-inflammatory drugs,
cold hydrotherapy and rest. Serious reactions of this type may indicate the
presence of joint sepsis.
Joint sepsis is a rare but potentially life-threatening complication of the
intra-articular injection. It usually results from the deposition of skin
organisms into the joint space by the needle tip. Gustafson et al., (1989) have
demonstrated that Adequan may potentiate a subinfective dose of contaminant
bacteria. (2,3). Hence, Strict aseptic injection technique is of utmost
Successful resolution of joint sepsis depends on prompt recognition and
rigorous antimicrobial treatment. (1,4,5,6,). Early dianosis of septic arthritis
may be complicated by the similar appearance of joint inflammation. Excessive
inflammation accompanied by lameness, swelling, and edema extending beyond the
joint limits should alert the practitioner to the possibility of sepsis.
Synovial fluid analysis with cutology and bacterial culture of the fluid or a
section of antibiotic therapy should be instituted without delay and joint
lavage considered. It is recommended that samples used for bacterial culture be
taken prior to initiating antibiotic therapy.
The concomitant use of Adequan with steroidal or non-steroidal
anti-inflammatory agents may mask the symptoms of joint sepsis, thereby delaying
the diagnosis and reducing the likelihood of a satisfactory resolution.
Intra-articular injections should not be performed when the overlying skin
is scufed or blistered, as this precluded adherence to aseptic injection
Veterinarians are directed to the Reference Section below for additional
information concerning septic arthritis and its treatment.
Impairment of Reftility:
Fertility impairment studies in mares and stallions have not been conducted.
Do not use in horses intended for breeding.
Federal law restricts this drug to use by or on the order of a licensed
Adequan Solution, 250mg/mL is available as:
1 mL single dose vials Packaged in boxes of 6
Store at controlled room temperature up to 25*C (77*F) (See USP).
Rx Medication Sold Only To Licensed Veterinarians & Pharmacies. Current License Must Be On File Prior To Shipping.