Dexamethasone Sodium Phosphate is used as an anti-inflammatory and/or glucocorticoid agent for acute inflammatory conditions of arthritis and trauma. It is also given as supportive therapy in non-specific dermatoses such as summer eczema and atopy, provided proper therapy is also instituted to correct the cause of the underlying dermatosis. It may also be used prior to or after surgery to enhance recovery of poor surgical risks, provided that it is used in conjunction with full antibiotic coverage.
4 mg/ml for Intravenous Injection
Dexamethasone as a steroid is
equivalent in potency to some established steroids and considerably more
potent than others. In the case of the dog, dexamethasone is approximately
equivalent in dosage to prednisone, but about 30 to 40 times more potent
than prednisolone. DSP is especially well suited for intravenous use in
situations requiring a rapid and intense glucocorticoid and/or
Warning: Clinical and experimental data
have demonstrated that corticosteroids administered orally or parenterally
to animals may induce the first stage of parturition when administered
during the last trimester of pregnancy and may precipitate premature
parturition followed by dystocia, fetal death, retained placenta and
metritis. Additionally, corticosteroids administered in dogs, rabbits, and
rodents during pregnancy have resulted in cleft palate in offspring.
Corticosteroids administered to dogs during pregnancy have also resulted in
other congenital anomalies, including deformed forelegs.
Do not use in horses intended for food.
Contraindications: Do not use in viral
infections. Except when used for emergency therapy, DSP is contraindicated
in animals with tuberculosis, chronic nephritis, Cushings' disease and
peptic ulcers. Existence of congestive heart failure, osteoporosis and
diabetes are relative contraindications.
When administered in the presence of infections, appropriate
antibacterial agents should also be administered and continued for at least
3 days after discontinuance of the steroid.
Precautions: Because of the
anti-inflammatory action of corticosteroids, signs of infection may be
hidden. It may therefore be necessary to stop treatment until diagnosis is
made. Overdosage of some glucocorticoids may result in sodium and fluid
retention, potassium loss, and weight gains.
In infections characterized by overwhelming toxicity, DSP
therapy in conjunction with indicated antibacterial therapy is effective in
reducing mortality and morbidity. It is essential that the causative
organism be known and an effective anti-bacterial agent be administered
concurrently. The injudicious use of adrenal hormones in animals with
infections can be hazardous.
Use of corticosteroids, depending on dose duration and
specific steroid, may result in inhibition of endogenous steroid production
following drug withdrawal. In patients presently receiving or recently
withdrawn from systemic steroid treatments, therapy with a rapid acting
corticosteroid should be considered in unusually stressful situations.
Adverse Reactions: The therapeutic use
of DSP is unlikely to cause undesired accentuation of metabolic effects.
However, if continued corticosteroid therapy is anticipated, a high protein
intake should be provided to keep the animal in positive nitrogen balance. A
retardant effect on wound healing should be considered when it is used in
conjunction with surgery. Euphoria, or an improvement of attitude, and
increased appetite are the usual manifestations. The intra articular
injection in leg injuries in the horse may lead to osseous metaplasia.
Side reactions such as glycosuria, hyperglycemia, diarrhea,
polydipsia and polyuria have been observed in some species.
- Elevated levels of SGPT and SAP
- Vomiting and diarrhea (occasionally bloody).
- Cushing's syndrome in dogs has been reported in
association with prolonged or repeated steroid therapy.
- Corticosteroids reportedly cause laminitis in horses.
Dosage and Administration: For
intravenous use only
Dogs - 0.25 to 1 mg intravenously as the
initial dosage. (Based on 3 mg per mL of dexamethasone.) The dose may be
repeated for three to five days or until a response is noted.
Horses - 2.5 to 5 mg intravenously.
(Based on 3 mg per mL of dexamethasone.) If permanent corticosteroid effect
is required, oral therapy with dexamethasone may be substituted. When
therapy is to be withdrawn after prolonged corticosteroid administration,
the daily dose should be reduced gradually over a number of days in a
How Supplied: Dexamethasone Sodium
Phosphate Injection is supplied in 100 and 30 mL vials containing 4 mg of
dexamethasone sodium phosphate per mL. (Equivalent to 3 mg per mL of
Store between 15°C and 30°C (59°F and 86°F).
Federal law restricts this drug
to use by or on the order of a licensed veterinarian